what is computer system ?

what is computer system ?

Computer is an electronic device that receive input from users, store that input or instruction in memory, and then utilise a central processing unit (CPU) to process the information and provide the required results.

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Functions of a Computer

  1. Takes Data as Input.
  2. Data is stored in the computer’s memory.
  3. CPU converts the data into meaningful information after processing it.
  4. Produce the output.

Process Of Computer

Characteristics of Computer

High Speed

  1. A computer is a fast machine.
  2. Compared to a man who would take a long time to do the same operation, it can perform millions of calculations in just a few of seconds.


1. Computer results are extremely accurate.
2. Computer calculations are 100% error-free.

 Large Storage Capability:

  1. A computer contains a significantly larger amount of storage.
  2. It can Store Large amounts of data, including text, audio, video, and many other types of media.


  1. A computer can be used to find solutions to issues that arise in a variety of industries and workplaces.
  2. The complex scientific problem can also be solved by a computer.


  1. Automation is the ability of a computer to do a task on its own.
  2. Once an instruction or input is delivered to the computer, or stored in computer memory, it can direct programme execution without involving a person.

Reduction in Paper work:

  1. A large number of paper records are converted into compact text files and stored in computer memory through the usage of computers.

Limitation of Computer

  1. Lack Of Intelligence: A computer is a machine without any intelligence, making it incapable of carrying out any work. Every computer is incapable of making decisions like a human being.
  2. Dependent: Because computer output is depending on user input.
  3. Like a human, a computer cannot make decisions based on emotion or experience.

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History Of Computer

  1. Abacus (c. 3000 BCE): Abacus (c. 3000 BCE):  One of the earliest known computing tools is the abacus, an easy counting instrument, whose history goes back to around 3000 BCE. It is made up of beads strung on rods and was popular in ancient societies such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and Greece.Abcus Computer
  2. Mechanical Calculators (17th to 19th centuries): Mechanical Calculators (17th to 19th centuries): In the 17th century, arithmetic operations were first performed using mechanical calculators like the Pascaline and the Leibniz Wheel.
  3. Analytical Engine (1837): The Analytical Engine (1837), created by Charles Babbage, is regarded as the forerunner of the mechanical general-purpose computer. Although it was never constructed while he was alive, its design set the stage for current computer techniques.

Types of Computer

  1. Analog Computer: Lord Kelvin first introduced the analog computer. Physical variables that can be measured, such electrical voltage, serve as representations for numerical data. An analog computer is a thermometer.
  2. Digital Computer:A digital computer that only takes and processes data in the form of numbers after converting all characters to binary code.
  3. Hybrid Computer:A hybrid computer combines the capabilities of an analog and a digital device. In geological departments, hybrid computers are present.

Computer are Based on Size and Capabilities

  1. Super Computer: A supercomputer is used for complex applications, such as detailed research, weather forecasting, and military design.
  2. Mainframe Computer: A Mainframe computers are used as servers and have extremely high memory and processing speeds (they may support thousands of users).
  3. Mini Computer: Mini Computers are more powerful than microcomputers because they offer faster operating speeds and larger storage capacities. It has a server function and can accommodate two to two hundred users.
  4. Micro Computer: Microcomputers are compact, reasonably priced computers made for home and business use. It has the slowest processing and storing speeds. These may be desktop or laptop computers.

Some Super Computer Examples:

  1. PARAM-8000: The first supercomputer built in India, the PARAM-8000, was created by CDAC Pune in 1998.
  2. Fugaku: Based in Japan and created by RIKEN and Fujitsu. Considered to be the most potent supercomputer in existence is Fugaku. It is an Arm-based system used for a variety of tasks, such as drug development, simulations, and weather forecasting.
  3. Summit: Located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States, Summit was the world’s most powerful supercomputer.  It is an IBM AC922 system with over 2.4 million cores. Summit is used for scientific research, including climate modeling, energy research, and materials science.
  4. Sierra: Housed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States, Sierra is an IBM AC922 system. It is primarily used for simulating nuclear weapons and national security research. Sierra provides significant computing power for complex simulations and scientific calculations.
  5. Sunway TaihuLight: Sunway TaihuLight, located at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, China, was one of the most powerful supercomputers. It is a Chinese-designed system based on the Sunway SW26010 processor. Sunway TaihuLight has been utilized for various scientific and engineering applications, including climate modeling and advanced manufacturing simulations.

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